Sir Francis Gamull’s Regiment of Chester Volunteer Foot

ConflictsFirst Civil War
ColonelSir Francis Gamull
William Edwards
Coat ColourRed & Yellow
Area RaisedChester
Flag ColourRed
Flag DesignUnknown
Field ArmiesGarrison

Chester City volunteer regiment, in garrison at Chester during the First Civil War

Service History


  • March: Mainwaring commissioned as Sgt Major
  • July: Skirmish near Chester?
  • November: Besieged at Chester
  • November to December: Siege of Hawarden Castle (2 coy)
  • December: Storm of Beeston Castle (det)



  • January: Skirmish at Chrisleton
  • January to February: Besieged at Chester
  • February: Relief of Chester
  • March to September: Besieged at Chester
  • September: Battle of Rowton Heath
  • September to February 1646: Besieged at Chester


  • February: Surrender of Chester
  • Brereton gives command of the Chester City Regiment to Alderman William Edwards


Not precisely a Trained Band regiment, the unit was comprised of volunteer townsmen. They usually guarded the city, but occasional detachments were sent for service elsewhere, such as the sieges of Harwarden and Beeston Castles. Although present in Chester during the Battle of Rowton Heath they do not appear to have been heavily engaged, if at all.

Coats, Flags and Equipment

Sir Francis and a selection of soldiers presumed to belong to his regiment are illustrated in the form of stained glass at St Chad’s Church in Farndon, Cheshire, Farndon Church together with prominent Chester Royalists Sir Richard Grosvenor, Sir William Mainwaring and William Barnston. The window was painted post-restoration using Civil War era drill manuals as inspiration for the figures. The coat colours today appear yellow, but examination of the window has shown that originally some were painted in red, as shown in the link above, the colour having deteriorated over the centuries. There were additional similar stained glass depictions at Poole Hall Poole Hall. Therefore on this evidence, it appears that Gamull's regiment wore both yellow coats and red coats, and carried a red (or rose) flag.

From the stained glass depictions and records below, the regiment was armed conventionally with pikes and muskets.

Notable Officers

Sir Francis Gamull

Sir Francis Gamull 1606-1654.

William Edwards

Alderman, he was given command by Brereton after Chester surrendered

Officer List

From original research by Victor Judge aka BCW User 1642

  • Colonel Sir Francis Gamul
  • Lieutenant Colonel Richard Grosvenor
  • Sargeant Major William Mainwaring
  • Sargeant Major Thomas Thropp (Took over as Sgt. Maj upon the death of Mainwaring and should be also listed as a Capt.)
  • Captain John Adlington
  • Captain Daniel Bavand I.O. Chester
  • Captain Bennett
  • Captain Henry Brereton I.O. Chester
  • Captain James Hudleston I.O. Chester
  • Captain Thomas Gamul
  • Captain David Humphreys I.O. Chester
  • Captain Edward Morgan Ment. I.O.
  • Captain Edward Morgell ^
  • Captain Thomas Thropp *
  • Captain Valentine Whitmore
  • Captain Lieutenant Richard Barnston I.O. Chester
  • Lieutenant Aldersey
  • Lieutenant Michael Hodgekin I.O. Chester to Capt.Morgan
  • Lieutenant David Humphreys Ment. I.O
  • Lieutenant Richard Janines I.O. Chester to Capt. Bavan
  • Lieutenant King
  • Lieutenant John Lingly I.O. Chester to Capt.Humphrey
  • Lieutenant Edward Morgell Different man to Lt. Morgell
  • Lieutenant Henry Morgell
  • Lieutenant Richard Wright I.O. Chester
  • Ensign Charles Broster I.O. Chester to Capt.Hudleston
  • Ensign Richard Littler I.O. Chester to Capt. Bavand
  • Ensign Randall Minshall I.O. Chester to Capt.
  • Ensign John Taylor
  • Ensign John Lingen

* Captain Thropp appears to have become Sargeant Major following the death of Mainwaring as he was of that rank when acting as a commissioner for the surrender of Chester in January 1645/6.

Contemporary References

From original research by Victor Judge aka BCW User 1642

Funeral at Chester

Harl.Mss. 2129 f.55A

Alderman William Gamul was buried in April 1643 and the coffin led by the souldiers trayling their pikes, 12 musketts, drume covered beating sadly followed by Colonel Gamul and Captain Throp

(1) Sgt. Maj Mainwaring's Commission

Add. Mss. 19398 f.139 Charles by the Grace of God King of England Scotland and France defender of the faith &e. William Mainwaring greetings.

Know you and all men whom it doth or may concerne that we trusting in your ability and fidelity and experience in martial affaires doe hereby constitute and appointe you to be Sergient Maior of the Regiment under the Command of Colonell Francis Gamul and doe therefore instruct you immediately to take into your charge and command the execution of the said place and office of Sergient Maior of the said Regiment….. Giver at our Court at Oxford the tenth day of March in the Eighteenth yeare of our Reigne.

Demolition of Handbridge

Harl. Mss. 2135 f.108

Mr Alderman I am commanded to give you and the rest of the inhabitants of Handbridge this information, that it is his Highness the Princes pleasure and the Governors order, that handbridge be forthwith levelled to the ground, and therefore that nene be permitted to build or repaire any houses, and if they neglect ye service till an enemie be upon his march, they will certainly be soe burnt, unless they forthwith be pulled down and those that are ye reddyest to observe his command, will find his readiness and service well rewarded.

Sir this I had in command to deliver unto you and the poor inhabitants of Handbridge, find out any way wherein I may be serviceable to them, to the Prince or Governor he shall find me unto my utmost and endeavour to doe them any kindness &e…

Mainwaring Chester 23. May 1644

Wood for Chester

Add. Mss. 19398 f.153 To Sir William Mainwaring Sargeant Major or his Deputy.

Whereas the City and Castle of Chester is to be stored with provisions of all sorts for the maintainence and supply of the said City and Castle and that I am informed that the Coopers of the City and Armie want materialls for the makeinge of such vessells as be convenient and necessarie to receive and store up the same. And that a Wood called Blayton Wood late a delinquent lyeth neare unto the said City wherein are trees most fitt and convenient for that purpose. These are therefore to will and require you, and hereby authorise you to cutt downe five hundred such trees, and the same to imploy for the uses abovesaid, and to be accomptable unto me or to whom I shall appoint when you shallbe commanded. And all Commissioners for Delinquents estates for the said City and Garrison are to take notice hereof as my will and pleasure.

Given under my hand and seale at armes this 24th of February 1644(5). (Prince) Maurice

Mainwaring's house

Add. Mss. 19383 f.154 Extract.

To Commissioners for Delinquents estates Sargeant Major Mainwaring to have and enjoy the dwelling house late called ye Fryars 24th February 1644(5) (Prince) Maurice


+ Bodleain Library. Rawlinson Mss.B210 John Byrons account of the siege of Chester.

(2) Siege casualties

Harley Mss. 2155. Randle Holmes third narration of the siege of Chester.

20.9.1645 Lieutenant Aldersey slew and his 16 men fled. Captain Morgan and Captain Bennett to sally out. Captain Adlington standing on the wall to behold the skirmish was shot through the crown of his hat without doing him any harm.' Lost 1 Major 1 Ensign and 15 prisoners

21/22.9.1645 Parliament attempt to storm Chester defended by Captain Thropp and Lt. Kings with their companies. Captain Crosby and his troop supported them. His Lt. was killed.

9.10.1645 'Sir William Mainwaring and Captain Adlington killed today.'

29.10.1645 'Captain Crosby with his Troop and Captain Morgell with 6 score musketeers sallied out.'

(3) Burials

St.Oswalds Chester. Parish register. Captain John Adlington buried 17.10.1645 Lieutenant Edward Morgell buried 8.11.1645

(4) Dodds' petition

Chester record office ZA/F/26/28. 16.4.1644 Petition of Hugh Dodd his request to be a Freeman of Chester has taken arms under Capt. Thomas Gamul for the defence of the city.

(5) Capt Gamul buried

St. Marys on the hill, Chester. Parish register. Captain Thomas Gamul buried. Son of Col. Gamul. 12.6.1644.


BLB.VOL.II No. 803 + 804.

(7) Ensign Taylor

SP23.147.603 Deposition of Richard Boothe that Taylor was an Ensign in Chester and had a feather in his hat.

Thropp's properties

A list of Thropps properties among his sequestration papers shows the effects of the siege.


One house Widdon Street paid formerly eleaven pounds but halfe the house is beaten downe by a Granado and will not now yeald above five pounds p anno. One shop and Chamber Joseph Brewer at foure pounds ten shillings. The Chamber torne by a Granado.

(8) Garrison in 1643

An early document relating to the Town garrison of 1643 exists in the National Library of Wales.

See also Colonel William Wynne’s Regiment of Foot

Llanfair & Brynodol (3) P498

For my worthy freind Captaine Griffeth at his lodging att Mr Owen Hughes m(erc?)hant neare to Trinity Church these If this letter require an answere you may send it by the bearer hereof and it shalbe saflie deliv.

Captaine of the watche

  • Capt. Barnestone 1 night (Barnston)
  • Capt. Thorpe (Thropp)
  • Capt. Werden
  • Capt. Peter Gruffith
  • Capt. Eaton
  • Capt. Price
  • Capt. Richard Gruffith
  • Capt. Thelwall
  • Capt. Spurstow

The Grand Round

  • Collonell Camwell (Gamul)
  • Collonell Wynne
  • Maior Manwaring
  • Maior Moldsworth
  • Sr. Thomas Hanmer the Maior Generall
Walley's petition

Chester Record Office QJF 90/2 No.175 Trinity 1662

Petition of George Walley. In Col. Gamuls Regiment in City Company. Afterwards Trooper in Captain Bavands Troop of Colonel Marrows Regiment. After Marrows death went into Beeston Castle under Vallet then to Holt Castle under Sir Richard Lloyd.


See Also