Sir Francis Anderson's Regiment of Horse

Active1643 to 1645
CountryEngland
AllegianceRoyalist
ConflictsFirst Civil War
TypeHorse
ColonelsSir Francis Anderson
Area RaisedNorthumberland
Durham
Flag ColourUnknown
Flag DesignUnknown
Field ArmiesGlenham 1644
Newcastle 1644
Oxford Army 1645
Northern Horse 1645

Royalist cavalry regiment of the Northern army, serving in Northumberland, with Newcastle and later part of Langdale's Northern Horse.

Service History

1643

  • March: Anderson commissioned Colonel?

1644

  • January: Serving with Glenham in Northumberland, at Wooler
  • Join Newcastle's force
  • March: Battle of Bolden Hill
  • March: Battle of Hylton
  • July: Battle of Marston Moor
  • August: Battle of Ormskirk

1645

  • January: Skirmish at Uphaven, Wiltshire*
  • February: Battle of Melton Mowbray
  • March: Battle of Pontefract
  • May: Storm of Leicester
  • June: Battle of Naseby
  • August: Storm of Huntingdon
  • September: Battle of Rowton Heath
  • October: Battle of Sherburn-in-Elmet, Anderson captured
  • October: Battle of Carlisle Sands

Notes

Newman provides a history of the regiment and biographies of its officers1).

Sir Francis Anderson led a regiment of horse in early 1644, according to Brigadier Young this was previously Colonel George Heron's Regiment of Horse, but Newman disagreed and had Brandling taking over from Heron2). In January 1644 Anderson's regiment served under Sir Thomas Glenham on the Scottish border then joined Newcastle for the fighting retreat to York in the face of the Scots invasion. The Northern Horse under Lord Goring was sent away from York, uniting with Prince Rupert in June and participating in the ‘York March’ prior to the Battle of Marston Moor. Despite their initial success on the Royalist left flank, the battle was lost and the Northern Horse retreated into Lancashire, suffering another defeat at Ormskirk by Meldrum before riding south to join the Oxford Army.

In early 1645 they were led north by Sir Marmaduke Langdale, routing Rossiter at Melton Mowbray, then Lambert at Pontefract, before recall to Oxford for the Naseby campaign. After defeat at Naseby they accompanied King Charles to Huntingdon and Rowton Heath. In October 1645 Lord Digby led them north again, in the hope of uniting with Montrose, although by this time his army had been largely destroyed at Philiphaugh. Snatching defeat from the jaws of victory at Sherburn-in-Elmet, the final battle of the Northern horse was at Carlisle Sands.

Flags

Unknown

Notable Officers

Lists of the regiment's officers are shown in Officers and Regiments of the Royalist Army by Stuart Reid (Partizan Press) and The Royalist Army in Northern England 1642-45 (2 vols) Peter R Newman, PhD Thesis, The University of York, 1978

Sir Francis Anderson

Sir Francis Anderson of Jesmond near Newcastle had served as Sheriff of Newcastle in 1641. He led his regiment until captured at Sherburn-in-Elmet in 1645. After the Protectorate he was MP for Newcastle in both the Convention and Cavalier Parliaments and served terms as Mayor of the city.

Lt Col George Tong

Previously Lt Col of Colonel George Heron's Regiment of Horse, he was still with the Northern Horse in 1645.

Officer Lists

From original research by Victor Judge aka BCW user 1642

  • Colonel Francis Anderson
  • Lieutenant Colonel George Tonge Ment. I.O.
  • Sargeant Major Samuel Davison Ment. I.O.
  • Captain Richard Cole Ment. I.O.
  • Captain Thomas Jackson I.O. Durham
  • Captain Kirkbride Ment. I.O.
  • Captain Francis Read (1) + Ment. I.O.
  • Captain John Tayler I.O. Durham
  • Lieutenant Robert Leighton I.O. Yorks. to Lt. Col. Tonge
  • Lieutenant Marmaduke Machell I.O. Durham to Sgnt. Maj. Davison
  • Lieutenant Edmund Sandford I.O. Westmorl. to Capt. Kirkbride
  • Lieutenant Ralph Tayler I.O. Durham to Capt. Tayler
  • Cornet George Haggerston I.O. Essex
  • Cornet Leonard Hodgeson I.O. Newcastle
  • Cornet Thomas Johnson I.O. Durham to Capt. Cole
  • Cornet John Preston I.O. Durham to Capt. Tayler
  • Cornet William Trollup I.O. Durham
  • Quartermaster Robert Dobson I.O. Durham to Lt. Col. Tonge
  • Quartermaster Anthony Spoore I.O. Northumb. to Capt. Read
  • Quartermaster Robert Teasdel I.O. Durham to Sgnt. Maj. Davison
  • Quartermaster John Unthank I.O. Durham

Contemporary References

From original research by Victor Judge aka BCW user 1642

(1) Catholic Record Society The English College Rome

‘Francis Read born and brought up neer Newcastle in Northumberland. Son of noble and once rich family. Has 1 brother and 3 sisters all Catholics. Studied until 15. Was a Captain for the King 4 years. Always healthy except when wounded.’ Admitted 23.11.1648.

E.32.10 The copy of a letter from Colonel Francis Anderson to Sir Thomas Glenham…

‘The last night I had notice that Weltons Regiment was quartered in Warke Barony at Preston, Leermouth, Warke and Mindrum, it was twelve of the clock at night before the Intelligence came to me, whereupon I immediately caused the guards to bee strengthened and doubled, my scouts attending until this morning for more perfect information, that I might advertise you of it; it is now confirmed by one that was this morning amongst them, that there is six Colours of Horse, which were drawing out, and the Drums beating for the calling out of some Companies of Foot, which also are come over, but the certaine number of Foot I cannot as yet learne, but suppose them to be a part of the Lord Maitlands Regiment, which lay at Coldstreame, I shall endeavour to keep my Quarters hereabouts, until I receive farther orders from you. I am now drawing my whole Regiment into Wooler, having heard for certaine as I am writing, that a great Body of the Enemies Foot, and very many Troopes of Horse advanced over Barwicke Bridge yesterday, and were as farre as Haggeston; it is conceived they will forthwith march towards Bellforde, for they are Quartered on the English side; you will please to take these things into a present consideration, and afford a present answer to, Sir, your humble servant,

Francis Anderson. Wooler 20 Jan 1643/4.’

Strength

1) The Royalist Army in Northern England 1642-45 (2 vols) Peter R Newman, PhD Thesis, The University of York, 1978
2) The Old Service: Royalist regimental colonels and the Civil War, 1642-6 P.R. Newman, Manchester University Press, 1993. ISBN 0-7190-3752-2