Anna, Marchioness of Hamilton’s Troop of Horse

ConflictsFirst Bishops’ War
CaptainMarchioness of Hamilton
Area RaisedLanarkshire
Flag ColourUnknown
Flag Design see below
Field ArmiesLeslie 1639

The only troop of Covenanter horse known to have been raised or commanded by a woman

Service History


  • May: Troop of horse raised in Lanarkshire
  • June: Join Leslie’s army at Duns Law
  • June: Standoff at Duns Law
  • June: Disbanded following the Treaty of Birks


A history of the unit is shown in Edward M. Furgol’s A Regimental History of the Covenanting Armies 1639-1651 Edinburgh, 1990. ISBN 0 85976 194 0

Flags & Equipment

Lady Hamilton’s troop cornet bore a device of a hand repelling a book and the motto For God, the King, Religion and the Covenant.

Notable Officers

Lady Anna Cunningham, Marchioness of Hamilton

Lady Hamilton was a committed Covenanter, who allegedly inspired the women of Scotland to curse their husbands unless they resisted the King’s forces in the Bishops’ Wars. Her son, James, 1st Duke of Hamilton was however a Royalist and moreover led an invasion fleet from England that anchored off Leith and failed to achieve very much at all. Some implied that Hamilton was discommoded by the thought of facing his mother. She had come forth armed with a pistol, which she vowed to discharge on her own son, if he offered to come ashore. Her son the 1st Duke later led the Scots Engagers at Preston, subsequently being captured and executed, her second son, William, 2nd Duke of Hamilton was killed fighting for the Royalists at Worcester in 1651 and was succeeded by his sister, Lady Anne, 3rd Duchess of Hamilton.


  • A single troop

See Also