Lord Andover's Regiment of Horse

Active1642 to 1645
ConflictsFirst Civil War
ColonelsLord Andover
Thomas Howard
Area Raised
Flag ColourGreen
Flag Designsee below
Field ArmiesHopton 1643
Oxford Army 1643
Hopton 1644
Oxford Army 1644-5
Goring 1645

Also Sir Thomas Howard's Regiment of Horse

Royalist cavalry regiment that served in the West Country and with the King's Oxford Army throughout the First Civil War.

Service History


  • October: Lord Andover commissioned to raise a regiment of 500 horse
  • December: Quartered at Islip


  • January: Skirmish at Piddington nr Brill, Lt Col Crofts' troop captured.
  • June-July: Siege of Exeter
  • July: First Storm of Bristol
  • September: First Battle of Newbury


  • January: Swords, pistol shot and powder received (AP)
  • March: Battle of Cheriton (TH)
  • June: Battle of Tipton Green?
  • June: Battle of Cropredy Bridge
  • July: Lt Col Palmer and Captain Bradley in Greenland House when it surrenders (AP)
  • August: Battle of Lostwithiel
  • October: Second Battle of Newbury
  • November: Relief of Donnington


  • March: Lt Col Palmer allocated moneys in Oxfordshire (AP)
  • May: Storm of Leicester
  • June: Battle of Naseby
  • July: Skirmish at Ilminster
  • July: Battle of Langport


This regiment's history is problematical. Lord Andover was commissioned to raise a regiment of 500 horse on 11th October 1642 that was assumed (eg. Reid, Cavalier Army List) to have passed to his younger brother Thomas Howard who is said to have led the regiment in the field as Lt Col until commissioned Colonel in September 1643, thereafter leading the regiment as part of the King's Oxford army. However, evidence uncovered by Victor Judge (see below) has the regiment's Lt Col as James Crofts, then Richard Palmer. Palmer went on to become Lt Col of Sir Thomas Sandys’ Regiment of Horse and later Colonel. Possibly Sandys' regiment was a continuation of Lord Andover's? Possible solutions are that Andover's/Palmer's and Thomas Howard's regiments were entirely separate, or that Andover's regiment split at some stage into Thomas Howard's and Lord Andover's, later Palmer's. Until this is resolved I have noted Andover/Palmer as (AP) in the service history above.

The conventional story is that field command soon passed to Andover's brother, Thomas Howard. The regiment was sent with the Marquis of Hertford and Prince Maurice to reinforce Hopton but was left to blockade Exeter with Sir John Berkeley's forces while Hopton's and Hertford's army marched North to Lansdown and Roundway Down. They were recalled for the storm of Bristol and fought with the Oxford army before returning to Hopton's command as part of Lord Forth's contingent. After the battle of Cheriton they rejoined the Oxford army for the 1644 campaign until the defeat at Naseby in 1645. The remnants of the regiment appear to have returned West, serving with Lord Goring before disbanding or being absorbed by another regiment.


At Aldbourne Chase in April 1644 Richard Symonds1) noted that Thomas Howard's regiment consisted of 300 men with 8 green cornets.

Lt Col Crofts' troop captured near Brill in January 1643 was reported to have a cornet with the motto Ratio Ultim, regim, with a pistoll and a dagger crosse.

Notable Officers

Lord Andover

Charles Howard (1615 – April 1679), styled Viscount Andover from 1626 to 1669, was the son of Thomas Howard, 1st Earl of Berkshire and his wife Lady Elizabeth Cecil. In 1669 he succeeded his father as the 2nd Earl of Berkshire. He was an influential member of the Catholic nobility, Gentleman of the Bedchamber to Charles II in exile and a supporter of the Duke of York. Implicated in the Popish Plot he fled to Paris dying there in 1679.

Colonel Thomas Howard

The Hon. Thomas Howard (1619-1706) was Lord Andover's younger brother, and sat in the Long Parliament as MP for Wallingford. He obtained the Colonelcy of the regiment in 1643, commanded the brigade of Oxford horse sent with Lord Forth to reinforce Hopton prior to the battle of Cheriton, and served as a brigadier of horse at Naseby. He succeeded his brother as 3rd Earl of Berkshire and, according to Pepys, his illegitimate daughter Moll Davies was one of Charles II's mistresses.

Officer Lists

From original research by Victor Judge aka BCW user 1642

  • Colonel Charles Howard, Lord Andover
  • Lieutenant Colonel James Crofts
  • Lieutenant Colonel Richard Palmer (1)
  • Captain Bradley
  • Captain Michael Chadwell (2)
  • Captain William Skipwith (2)
  • Lieutenant Rivers
  • Lieutenant Greene
  • Cornet Richard Taylor (2)
  • Quartermaster Barnaby Bradford

Officers under Col Thomas Howard are shown in Reid's Cavalier Army List.

Contemporary References

From original research by Victor Judge aka BCW user 1642

Regiment raised 11th October 1642 Commission in Blacks Docquets.

(1) Palmer funded from Oxfordshire

Harl.Mss. 6802 f.32

To ye High Sheriff of our County of Oxford Our will and pleasure is:That you soe assigne unto Lieut. Coll. Richard Palmer, now Marshall for our County of Oxford, the some of One Hundred pound, of ye arrears, in this County, for Contribution; accruing due unto us, during ye three months ye same contribution, was committed to your collecting, The said some of one hundred pound, to be collected, by ye said Marshall, to his owne use, for ye raysing ye number of twenty men and horse, to execute ye place and office, comitted unto him, for which this shall be your warrant, Given at our Court at Oxford ye 2d day of March 1644.

Powder & Shot

The Regiment appears to have been taken over, or at least led by Colonel Richard Palmer.

The connection between the two regiments I have drawn is based on the fact that on January 17th 1644 Pistol powder bullets and swords were delivered from the Oxford military stores to Lord Andovers Regiment for Lieutenant Rivers and were signed for by James Pitts.

WO55.458.105 10lb Pistoll Powder 10lb Bullet and 16 swords for Lord Andovers Regiment of Horse to Lieutenant Rivers. Signed James Pitts 17.1.43/4


WO55.458 Book 2 f.17 Lord Andover 3 Troops of Horse Powder pistoll shot 30 lb each signed Corp. Robert Underwood end May 1643 ?

James Pitts is listed under Colonel Richard Palmers Regiment of Horse Rivers is mentioned 27th January 1644/5 as a Captain of a Troop in Colonel Palmers Regiment when the Troop was beaten up at Enstone, Oxfordshire.

Skirmish at Piddington Jan 1643

Crofts Colour taken and described.

(2) H.M.C. 5th Report January 17th 1642/3

Letter from Colonel Bulstrode and Thomas Tyrrill at Aylesbury to the Earl of Essex

The writers being sorry to see their Countrymen, who were well effected, daily plunderd by the Cavaliers, though they wanted strength to undertake the chief harbour of them, yet resolved on Sunday last to attack them upon one of their quarters. Thought to have found a Troop at Lurgis-hall about a mile and a half from Brill, but they had gone the afternoon before eard that at Piddington a mile further on there was another troop, so marched on and took the whole, men, horses and Colours within sight of Brill without loss or hurt to any of the writers troop. Some, were afterwards taken in the town, will not acknowledge themselves to be of that company, but they are as bad as the worst, especially one Chadwell, who had a Commission about him for a Captain of a Company of Dragooners, and Nicholson who is known to have been in actual service. Have sent all the prisoners, in number forty nine, with the colours, whose motto is supreme and remarkable. Pray to be excused for so often soliciting more strength, but the enemy grows upon them, and the neighbouring County of Northampton. The writers troop will not be recruited by the horses taken, as they are for the most unserviceale and poor, and as for arms they had very few. Have in custody a man of this County,who posted up in the market towns the proclamation wherein Colonel Hampden and Colonel Goodwin were excepted from pardon, will keep him until they know his Excellency's commands. To this letter Colonel Goodwin adds 'I beseech your Excellency to consider of Lieutenant Greene as one of the chiefe plunderers of the house of your humble servant'.

Skipwith had a commission for a troop of Horse which he threw away; he was to be assisted with the troop we took at Piddington, and by Chadwell to raise his troop by taking horses where he could find them. The little gentleman with silver lace and buttons on his coat was to have been cornet to Skipwith. Zouch, servant to Mr Gardiner, went in their company only to plunder. Chadwell took five horses the day before from an honest gentleman at Mortone, and plundered a good Ministers house at Water Stratford the same Sabbath day and took away from the Ministers Wife 18L. or 20L. The same company drove away eight or ten oxen of Sir Richard Ingoldsbys the day before

E.245.16 20th January Lieutenant Green and the Cornet of the Troope that was taken near Brill and brought up the night before with about fourty four Cavaliers, were brought to the Court of guard in the Palace yard, there to be kept as prisoners, until further order be the given by the House, it is reported that the Cornet is sergeant Francis his son and the Motto in the Colours was Ratio Ultim, regim, with a pistoll and a dagger crosse.

E.86.5 The Kingdomes Weekly Intelligencer 17- 24th January 1643 The first thing fitting to be communicated in this weeks intelligence,is Gods goodnesse to the Parliaments forces, in the taking of a whole Troope of the Cavaliers, whereof Master Crofts was Captaine: Colonell Goodwin fell on the Cavaliers in their Quarters at Piddington neere unto Brill in Buckinghamshire, where they took prisoners

  • Lieutenant Greene
  • Richard Taylor Cornet,and his Colours
  • Hen: Scudamore )
  • Sam: Bellamy ) Corporals
  • Peter Blake of St. Martins in the Fields Gent. Trooper
  • Hugh Hartly Gent
  • Master Vaughan servant to the Lord Rich
  • Arthur Rich Trooper and Fellow Commoner at Lincolne Colledge in Oxon.
  • Thomas Nicholson of Essex Gent. Trooper
  • William Skipwith, a Lincolnshire Gent. and one of the Kings Privy Chamber
  • Mr (Richard) Zouch of Oxford Trooper.
  • James Fleetwood Sergeant to Colonell Ferdinando Stanhope,
  • and 14 Troopers besides, with all their horse and armes.

All which persons were brought prisoners to London,the chiefest in a Coach,the rest in Carts,the 20. of Jan….

[Note: Mercurius Aulicus (3rd week) mentions the incident as Lt Col Crofts' troop surprised and captured near Brill by Goodwin]

House of Commons Journal 13th March 1643 mentions Richard Zouch and Thomas Nicholson amongst other to be removed from London House to Norwich to the County Gaol.

Skipwith appears to have later raised a Troop in Colonel Arthur Astons Regiment of Horse in Oxford.

Lord Andover's Regiment were in Garrison at Greenland House and Lieutenant Colonel Palmer and Captain Bradley were sent out to treat for the surrender.

House of Commons Journal Volume 2: 13 March 1643

Resolved, &c. That Ralph Brandlyng, Captain Robert Markland, Captain Andrew Tyre; William Ramsey, Alex. Doonye, William Browne, Gilbert Browne, George Reddock, Christ. Issard, Lieutenants; Captain Mich. Chadwell; now Prisoners in Lambeth House; be removed to Colchester, Five to the County Gaol, and Five to the Town Gaol: And that a Letter be prepared by the Committee, to be sent to the Mayor, and other wellaffected Persons of that Town; to take Care for the Safe-guarding of them: And that, in the mean time, they be kept close Prisoners.

SP23.217.369 Whereas it appeares by an affidavit hereunto annexed,that the Lord Andover was resident and an inhabitant in the City of Exeter within the space of three months before the Treatie for the rendition of the said place. These are therefore to certifie that the said Lord Andover is fit to have the benefit of the Articles agreed unto upon the surrender,and I doe accordinglie recommend him that he may be admitted to compound upon the said Articles. Given under my hand and Seale at Kensington upon The 24th day of September 1649 Fairfax


  • March 1644: At least 300 in 8 troops at Cheriton
  • April 1644: 300 at Aldbourne Chase
  • May 1645: 80 at Leicester2)

See Also

1) Symonds' diary is online at http://www.molyneuxs.com/49301/index.html
2) British Library Harleian Ms 911