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royalist:foot-regiments:richard-fielding [26/06/2019 09:46]
1642
royalist:foot-regiments:richard-fielding [20/09/2019 12:01] (current)
tim
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 <WRAP right> <WRAP right>
 |**Flag Illustration 1**|{{:​royalist:​foot-regiments:​sir_jacob_astley_wavy.png?​200|}}((Flag images by kind permission of [[http://​www.wargamesdesigns.com/​ecw.html|Wargames Designs]]))| |**Flag Illustration 1**|{{:​royalist:​foot-regiments:​sir_jacob_astley_wavy.png?​200|}}((Flag images by kind permission of [[http://​www.wargamesdesigns.com/​ecw.html|Wargames Designs]]))|
-|**Active**|1642 to 1645|+|**Active**|1642 to 1646|
 |**Country**|England| |**Country**|England|
 |**Allegiance**|Royalist| |**Allegiance**|Royalist|
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 | |Sir Jacob Astley|  | |Sir Jacob Astley|
 |**Area Raised**|Herefordshire| |**Area Raised**|Herefordshire|
-|**Coat Colour**|Red or Blue?| +|**Coat Colour**|Red or Blue?| 
 +| |White or Grey?|
 |**Flag Colour**|White or Blue|  |**Flag Colour**|White or Blue|
 |**Flag Design**|Cinquefoils?​|  |**Flag Design**|Cinquefoils?​|
 |**Field Armies**|Oxford 1642-45| |**Field Armies**|Oxford 1642-45|
 +| |Astley 1646|
 </​WRAP>​ </​WRAP>​
  
-**Also Jacob, Lord Astley’s Regiment of Foot**+**Later, ​Jacob, Lord Astley’s Regiment of Foot**
  
 //Royalist infantry regiment of the Oxford Army given to Sir Jacob Astley after Fielding’s disgrace at Reading// //Royalist infantry regiment of the Oxford Army given to Sir Jacob Astley after Fielding’s disgrace at Reading//
Line 33: Line 35:
   *13th - 27th April: Besieged st Reading   *13th - 27th April: Besieged st Reading
   *27th April: Surrender of Reading   *27th April: Surrender of Reading
 +  *May: Command passed to Astley after Fielding'​s court-martial
   *May: Quartered at Culham Camp   *May: Quartered at Culham Camp
   *26th July: Storm of Bristol   *26th July: Storm of Bristol
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   *June: Besieged at Leicester?   *June: Besieged at Leicester?
   *July: Recruited in Wales   *July: Recruited in Wales
 +
 +====1646====
 +  *March: Captain Ashmole commissioned at Worcester
 +  *March: Battle of Stow on the Wold
 +  *March to April: Captain John Blythe surrenders after the siege of Pendennis
  
 =====Notes===== =====Notes=====
Line 59: Line 67:
 With Fielding in disgrace, in May the regiment was given to Sir Jacob Astley, Sergeant-Major General of the Oxford Army infantry, and a very experienced old soldier indeed. Usually they were commanded by Lt Col Coningsby or Major Toby Bowes in the field as Astley had other duties to perform. They took part in the Oxford Army campaigns of 1643. In December 1643 a detachment was made to the composite musketeer battalion under Colonel Richard Bolle that was sent south to reinforce Hopton. Trapped by Sir William Waller at Alton Church they fought stoutly but were forced to surrender after Bolle was killed. The rest of the regiment continued with the Oxford Army through 1644 and 1645, until defeated and mostly captured at Naseby. It’s possible that some of the regiment were also in Leicester, surrendering a few days later. ​ With Fielding in disgrace, in May the regiment was given to Sir Jacob Astley, Sergeant-Major General of the Oxford Army infantry, and a very experienced old soldier indeed. Usually they were commanded by Lt Col Coningsby or Major Toby Bowes in the field as Astley had other duties to perform. They took part in the Oxford Army campaigns of 1643. In December 1643 a detachment was made to the composite musketeer battalion under Colonel Richard Bolle that was sent south to reinforce Hopton. Trapped by Sir William Waller at Alton Church they fought stoutly but were forced to surrender after Bolle was killed. The rest of the regiment continued with the Oxford Army through 1644 and 1645, until defeated and mostly captured at Naseby. It’s possible that some of the regiment were also in Leicester, surrendering a few days later. ​
  
-Quite a few foot Regiments that fought at Naseby were subsequently re-recruited in Wales from July 1645, including William Murray’s, Appleyard’s Tillier’s,​ John Pawlett’s,​ Sir Jacob Astley’s, Duke of York’s, King’s Lifeguard, Sir Henry Bard’s, Sir Bernard Astley’s, Robert Broughton'​s and Lisle’s((from original research by Victor Judge, BCW user 1642)).+Quite a few foot Regiments that fought at Naseby were subsequently re-recruited in Wales from July 1645, including William Murray’s, Appleyard’s Tillier’s,​ John Pawlett’s,​ Sir Jacob Astley’s, Duke of York’s, King’s Lifeguard, Sir Henry Bard’s, Sir Bernard Astley’s, Robert Broughton'​s and Lisle’s((from original research by Victor Judge, BCW user 1642)). Astley'​s regiment appear to have fought at Stow on the Wold, although one officer at least went into Pendennis garrison in Cornwall
  
 =====Coats, Flags and Equipment===== =====Coats, Flags and Equipment=====
-Clad in either all red or all blue suits of coats, breeches and montero hats in July 1643 along with the other Royalist foot regiments then in Oxford ((//ECW Flags and Colours 1: English Foot//, Stuart Peachey & Les Prince 1990, Partizan Press ISBN:​0946525846)).In September 1644 they received another issue, but of unknown colour.+Clad in either all red or all blue suits of coats, breeches and montero hats in July 1643 along with the other Royalist foot regiments then in Oxford ((//ECW Flags and Colours 1: English Foot//, Stuart Peachey & Les Prince 1990, Partizan Press ISBN:​0946525846)).In September 1644 they received another issue, but of unknown colour. In 1644 they are mentioned with Pennyman'​s as the white and grey regiments. Whether this refers to coat colours or flags is uncertain. A new clothing issue seems more likely than a change of flag designs.
  
 Astley'​s regiment'​s flags aren't known for certain, but one possibility is shown above at Flag Illustration 1. At the surrender of Reading white, red and blue flags were carried by the eight regiments of the garrison. At the Aldbourne Chase muster in 1644 Symonds noted that Astley’s and [[royalist:​foot-regiments:​sir-edward-stradling|Stradling’s]] regiments combined had 5 blue colours differenced by white cinquefoils and one plain white colour. Both the Astley and Stradling families used cinquefoils as devices, so which flags belonged to which regiment is rather unclear, though Stradling’s regiment was the larger. A similar blue flag with cinquefoils was captured at Edgehill, so is more likely from Stradling’s. However, a blue flag with a pierced ermine cinquefoil was captured at Naseby, which muddies the waters somewhat, this is illustrated above. Sir Jacob Astley’s regiment raised for the First Bishops’ War of 1639 had sky-blue and white colours, design unknown((//​ECW Flags and Colours 1: English Foot//, Stuart Peachey & Les Prince 1990, Partizan Press ISBN:​0946525846)). ​ Astley'​s regiment'​s flags aren't known for certain, but one possibility is shown above at Flag Illustration 1. At the surrender of Reading white, red and blue flags were carried by the eight regiments of the garrison. At the Aldbourne Chase muster in 1644 Symonds noted that Astley’s and [[royalist:​foot-regiments:​sir-edward-stradling|Stradling’s]] regiments combined had 5 blue colours differenced by white cinquefoils and one plain white colour. Both the Astley and Stradling families used cinquefoils as devices, so which flags belonged to which regiment is rather unclear, though Stradling’s regiment was the larger. A similar blue flag with cinquefoils was captured at Edgehill, so is more likely from Stradling’s. However, a blue flag with a pierced ermine cinquefoil was captured at Naseby, which muddies the waters somewhat, this is illustrated above. Sir Jacob Astley’s regiment raised for the First Bishops’ War of 1639 had sky-blue and white colours, design unknown((//​ECW Flags and Colours 1: English Foot//, Stuart Peachey & Les Prince 1990, Partizan Press ISBN:​0946525846)). ​
 +
 +The regiment seems to have been conventionally equipped with pikes and muskets; several muskets, bandoleers, pikes, 'long pikes' and a halberd were delivered from stores in Oxford in June and July 1643 (see below). ​
  
 =====Notable Officers===== =====Notable Officers=====
  
-A list of the regiment's officers is shown in //​Officers ​and Regiments ​of the Royalist Army// ​by Stuart Reid (Partizan Press).+====Colonel Richard Fielding==== 
 +Richard Fielding (also spelt Feilding) was appointed a Colonel ​of Foot for the Second Bishops' ​War of 1640, raising his men from Essex, Huntingdon ​and Bedfordshire. In the First Civil War he served as a brigadier at Edgehill, where he was captured but soon exchanged, then as second in command to Sir Arthur Aston at Reading. After the debacle resulting from his surrender to the Earl of Essex he was court-martialled and sentenced to death, but was reprieved at the last minute following pleas by Prince Charles supported by Prince Rupert. He was stripped of his command, but not his rank, and went on to fight for the Royalists as Master of the Ordnance at Cheriton under Hopton and Forth
  
-Colonel ​Sir Jacob Astleys Regiment ​of Foot+====Jacob, 1st Lord Astley of Reading==== 
 +Sir Jacob Astley (1579-1652) was a highly-experienced professional soldier who served as Sergeant-Major General of the infantry of the Oxford Army during the First Civil War. Biographies can be found online at [[http://​www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/​biog/​astley.htm|British Civil Wars]], [[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Lord_Astley|Wikipedia]] and [[http://​en.wikisource.org/​wiki/​Astley,​_Jacob_(DNB00)|Wikisource DNB]] .  He served as a soldier from the age of 18 beginning with an expedition to the Azores under Sir Walter Raleigh and the Second Earl of Essex, then on the continent for Prince Maurice of Nassau, Frederick V the ‘Winter King’ of Bohemia (brother in law to King Charles I and father of Prince Rupert), Christian IV of Denmark and Gustavus Adolphus and is said to have tutored Prince Rupert.  ​
  
 +He was appointed Sergeant Major General (commander of the infantry) and raised regiments of foot for both Bishops’ Wars. In the First Civil War he again led the King’s Infantry, from Edgehill where he prayed //"O Lord, Thou knowest how busy I must be this day. If I forget Thee, do not forget me." // and promptly followed with the order //"​March on, boys!"//​ to the defeat of the ‘Old Foot’ at Naseby. He was created 1st Baron Reading in November 1644. Clarendon noted that he contributed little to the Royalist Councils, possibly due to deafness, but remarking on his appointment as Sgt Maj General thought him //”a man as fit for that office as Christendom yielded”//​. ​
  
 +After Naseby, Astley was sent to Wales and the Marches, replacing the unpopular Charles Gerard. In September 1645 his son Sir Bernard Astley, a brigadier of the Oxford Army, was mortally wounded at Bristol. By March 1646 Astley had somehow managed to raise an army of 3000 out of remnants of regiments, reformados and garrison troops. In the final battle of the First Civil War he was defeated at Stow-on-the-Wold by Brereton and Morgan. Sitting down on a discarded drum he told his captors //“You have now done your work and may go to play, unless you will fall out among yourselves”//​. After a short imprisonment at Warwick Castle he retired to Kent, taking no part in the Second or Third Civil Wars.
  
-Lieutenant Colonel ​   Thomas Coningsby ​        I.O. Hereford. +====Officer Lists====
- +
-Sargeant Major           Toby Bowes                   (8)  +
- +
-Captain Lieutenant ​             Jackson ​               (5) +
  
-Captain ​                       Elias Ashmole ​               (1) +==Colonel Sir Jacob Astleys Regiment of Foot== 
-Captain ​                       Francis Bowles ​            (9) +From original research by Victor Judge aka BCW user`1642
-Captain ​                       Edward Bray                   I.O. Surrey +
-Captain ​                       John Blyth                       (2) +
-Captain ​                       Matthew Gore                  I.O. L + W.  +
-Captain ​                       Hastings Keyte               (4) +
-Captain ​                       Edmund Parker *            I.O. Warks. +
-Captain ​                                  ​Walley ​                  ​(7)  ​+
  
-Lieutenant ​                ​Salathiel Baxter ​             (7) +  *Colonel Sir Jacob Astley 
-Lieutenant ​                Francis Bowles ​              I.O. L + W. to Capt. Gore  +  *Lieutenant ​Colonel Thomas ​Coningsby I.O. Hereford. 
-Lieutenant ​                ​Fitzwilliam ​Coningsby I.O. Hereford. ​to Lt. Col. Coningsby +  *Sargeant Major Toby Bowes (8
-Lieutenant ​                  ​George Fawkett ​            I.O. L + W. to Capt. Bray +
-Lieutenant ​                  John Loveday ​               I.O. Warks. +
-Lieutenant ​                  ​Edmund Parker ​          ​(3 +
-Lieutenant ​                 Raphe Wright ​                 (6) to Lt. Col. Coningsby+
  
-Ensign ​                        ​Samuel Hickin ​                I.O. Staffs+  *Captain Elias Ashmole (1) 
-Ensign ​                        John Keymor ​                 ​I.O. Somerset+  *Captain Francis Bowles (9) 
 +  *Captain Edward Bray I.O. Surrey 
 +  *Captain John Blyth (2) 
 +  *Captain Matthew Gore I.O. L + W.  
 +  *Captain Hastings Keyte (4) (k. at Stow on the Wold) 
 +  *Captain Edmund Parker * I.O. Warks. 
 +  *Captain Walley (7)  
 +  
 +  *Captain Lieutenant Jackson (5)  
 +  *Lieutenant Salathiel Baxter (7) 
 +  *Lieutenant Francis Bowles I.O. L + W. to Capt. Gore  
 +  *Lieutenant Fitzwilliam Coningsby I.O. Hereford. to Lt. Col. Coningsby 
 +  *Lieutenant George Fawkett I.O. L + W. to Capt. Bray 
 +  ​*Lieutenant ​John Loveday ​I.O. Warks. 
 +  *Lieutenant Edmund Parker * (3) (PW at Alton Church) 
 +  *Lieutenant Raphe Wright (6) to Lt. Col. Coningsby
  
-Originally Colonel Richard Fieldings Regiment but given to Sir Jacob Astley in May 1643 following Fieldings Court Martiall for the surrender of Reading.+  *Ensign Samuel Hickin I.O. Staffs. 
 +  *Ensign John Keymor I.O. Somerset
  
 +A list of the regiment'​s officers is also shown in //Officers and Regiments of the Royalist Army// by Stuart Reid (Partizan Press).
  
 +=====Contemporary References=====
 +From original research by Victor Judge aka BCW user`1642
  
 +===Ashmole'​s commission===
 (1) Ashmole Mss.1136.f.211 (1) Ashmole Mss.1136.f.211
 +
 Commission as Captain of Foot 12.3.1646 at Worcester. Commission as Captain of Foot 12.3.1646 at Worcester.
  
 +===Blythe'​s petition===
 (2) SP23.69.478 ​ (2) SP23.69.478 ​
 Extract Extract
 +
 To the Honourable Committee for Compounding with Delinquents sitting att Gouldsmiths Hall To the Honourable Committee for Compounding with Delinquents sitting att Gouldsmiths Hall
 The humble petition of John Blythe of Colesell in the County of Warwick gent The humble petition of John Blythe of Colesell in the County of Warwick gent
 +
 Sheweth that your petitioner was Captaine of a Foote Company ​ under ye Command of Sir Jacob Astley Knt. for which his offence hee acknowledgeth to have displeased the Parliament and is thereby become under the notion of a Delinquent. Sheweth that your petitioner was Captaine of a Foote Company ​ under ye Command of Sir Jacob Astley Knt. for which his offence hee acknowledgeth to have displeased the Parliament and is thereby become under the notion of a Delinquent.
 And that being in the Garrison of  Pendennis at the tyme of the rendicion of the same humbly craves the benefitt of the Articles agreed thereunto. And that being in the Garrison of  Pendennis at the tyme of the rendicion of the same humbly craves the benefitt of the Articles agreed thereunto.
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 Certificate of William Batten that Capt.John Blyth was a Commissioner in Pendennis. Certificate of William Batten that Capt.John Blyth was a Commissioner in Pendennis.
  
 +
 +===Parker'​s exchange===
 (3) SP.CSPD1644 GET CORRECT SP. (3) SP.CSPD1644 GET CORRECT SP.
 Letter extract. Letter extract.
 Sir Edward Nicholas to the Earl of Forth 14.4.1644 Oxford Sir Edward Nicholas to the Earl of Forth 14.4.1644 Oxford
-'This bearer,​Edmund Parker,late a Lieutenant in Sir Jacob Astley'​s Regiment,​was taken prisoner at Alton,and hath procured liberty to solicit for his exchange for one John Johnson,now prisoner in the Castle here,to obtain which he comes recommended from Sir Jacob Astey.'​ 
  
 +'This bearer, Edmund Parker, late a Lieutenant in Sir Jacob Astley'​s Regiment, was taken prisoner at Alton, and hath procured liberty to solicit for his exchange for one John Johnson, now prisoner in the Castle here, to obtain which he comes recommended from Sir Jacob Astey.'​
 +
 +
 +===Hastings Keyte===
 (4) Baronetage of England (4) Baronetage of England
-‘Hastings Keyte son of John Keyte of Ebbrington Gloucestershire.Baptised 5.4.1621;he was a gentleman of great bravery,and true loyalty,​faithfully serving King Charles 1 in the quality of a Captain,​under the command of Sir Jacob (  afterwards Lord ) Astley,till being overpowered by the rebels,he was,after a sharp and obstinate resistance,​slain in the battle near Stow,on the 21st day of March 1645/6,and lies buried at Stowe.’ ​ 
  
-His slab lies near the Altar of Saint Edwards Church ​in Stow on the Wold,be careful not to be standing on it inadvertently+‘Hastings Keyte son of John Keyte of Ebbrington Gloucestershire. Baptised 5.4.1621; he was a gentleman of great bravery, and true loyalty, faithfully serving King Charles 1 in the quality ​of a Captain, under the command of Sir Jacob (afterwards Lord) Astley, till being overpowered by the rebels, he was, after a sharp and obstinate resistance, slain in the battle near Stowon the 21st day of March 1645/6and lies buried at Stowe.’ 
  
 +His slab lies near the Altar of Saint Edwards Church in Stow on the Wold, be careful not to be standing on it inadvertently. ​
  
 +
 +===Astley at Stow===
 E.334.1 E.334.1
-Lord Astley was taken prisoner at Stow by Nicholas Whitehead,​servant to Major Hankefford of the Warwick Regiment.He gave his arms and money to Whitehead,​seven pounds in Gold and three pounds in Silver.+Lord Astley was taken prisoner at Stow by Nicholas Whitehead, servant to Major Hankefford of the Warwick Regiment. He gave his arms and money to Whitehead, seven pounds in Gold and three pounds in Silver. 
 + 
 + 
 +===Astley & the waistcoats===
  
 SP28.128.17 Devon  (extract) SP28.128.17 Devon  (extract)
-30 old hangings taken out of Sir Jacob Astleys house and made into wastcoats,​quantity 100 for the use of the poor souldiers by order+ 
 +30 old hangings taken out of Sir Jacob Astleys house and made into wastcoats, quantity 100 for the use of the poor souldiers by order
  
 Waistcoats Waistcoats
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 December 23 1644  December 23 1644 
-6 souldiers of Lt.Col. Moors                                              6  +  *6 souldiers of Lt.Col. Moors 6  
-Captain Bawdon 6 souldiers ​                                            ​+  *Captain Bawdon 6 souldiers 6 
-Ensign Bickley for 4 souldiers of Lt. Boveys Co.         ​+  *Ensign Bickley for 4 souldiers of Lt. Boveys Co. 4 
-Captain Martin 6 of his souldiers ​                                    ​+  *Captain Martin 6 of his souldiers 6 
-Ensign Lea for 6 souldiers of Lt. Col. Creims [?] Co.   ​6      +  *Ensign Lea for 6 souldiers of Lt. Col. Creims [?] Co. 6      
-Captain Basketts Lt. for 5 souldiers ​                                        +  *Captain Basketts Lt. for 5 souldiers 5       
 + 
 +Note: Astley owned a house in Plymouth, likely these are soldiers of the Plymouth garrison. Perhaps Lt Col Robert Moore [[https://​www.british-history.ac.uk/​no-series/​cromwell-army-officers/​surnames-m|BHO '​M'​]] and Captain or Major Moreton of [[parliamentarian:​foot-regiments:​james-carr|Colonel James Carr’s Regiment of Foot]]; John Bawden a Captain in Plymouth garrison, [[https://​www.british-history.ac.uk/​no-series/​cromwell-army-officers/​surnames-b|BHO '​B'​]],​ Lt Col Ellis Crimes [[https://​www.british-history.ac.uk/​no-series/​cromwell-army-officers/​surnames-c|BHO '​C'​]] of Plymouth garrison and just possibly Capt John Baskett of [[parliamentarian:​foot-regiments:​thomas-carr|Colonel Thomas Carr’s Isle of Wight Regiment of Foot]].  
 + 
 +===Arms===
  
 (5) Public Record Office (5) Public Record Office
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 dd (delivered) out of his Maj. stores to Captaine Jackson for Sir Jacob Astley his own Companie dd (delivered) out of his Maj. stores to Captaine Jackson for Sir Jacob Astley his own Companie
  
-Musketts ​             +  *Musketts 9 
-Bandaleares ​      ​+  *Bandaleares 7 
-Pykes                   ​+  *Pykes 3 
-Halberts ​              ​1+  *Halberts 1
  
 (6) WO55.1661.218 (6) WO55.1661.218
 30. June 1643 30. June 1643
 Delivered out f his Majesties stores to Raphe Wright Lieutenant to Lieutenant Colonell Connisbye of Sir Jacob Astley his Regiment Delivered out f his Majesties stores to Raphe Wright Lieutenant to Lieutenant Colonell Connisbye of Sir Jacob Astley his Regiment
-Long Pikes 7 + 
 +  *Long Pikes 7  
 Rec'd Ra: Wright Rec'd Ra: Wright
  
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 dd out of his Maj. stores to Lifetennant Backster Lifetennant to Capt: Walley of Sr Jacob Astleys Regiment dd out of his Maj. stores to Lifetennant Backster Lifetennant to Capt: Walley of Sr Jacob Astleys Regiment
  
-Musketts ​       +  *Musketts 2 
-Bandaleeres ​ 2+  ​*Bandaleeres ​2 
 Salathiell Baxter Salathiell Baxter
  
Line 180: Line 222:
  
 TOBY Bowes Sergente Maior TOBY Bowes Sergente Maior
 +
 +
 +===Bowles'​ petition===
  
 (9) SP29.2.174.i (9) SP29.2.174.i
Line 185: Line 230:
 The humble petition of Francis Bowles The humble petition of Francis Bowles
 Sheweth Sheweth
-Your Highnes petitioner,​in the beginninge of the late  warrs in England,and as in dutie bound did ingage in his late Majesties service,and at the Battle of Edge hill was shott with a cannon Bullett being a Captaine under Sir Jacob Astlie,and there left and stript with the dead,the next day on the view of the corpses,​life being found in him,your highnes petitioner was carried to Oxford.His (Majesty) of never dying memory commanded more the ordinary care to be taken of him,whose command made him afterward capable to serve in the feild at Bristow,at Nasbie,at the Vale of Easham was taken prisoner,​his other arme broake and carried to Warwick Castle,​there continued duringe the time of the warr. 
  
-This appears to confirm that Lieutenant Francis is different man.+Your Highnes petitioner, in the beginninge of the late  warrs in England, and as in dutie bound did ingage in his late Majesties service, and at the Battle of Edge hill was shott with cannon Bullett being a Captaine under Sir Jacob Astlie, and there left and stript with the dead, the next day on the view of the corpses, life being found in him, your highnes petitioner was carried to Oxford. His (Majesty) of never dying memory commanded more the ordinary care to be taken of him, whose command made him afterward capable to serve in the feild at Bristow, at Nasbie, at the Vale of Easham was taken prisoner, his other arme broake and carried to Warwick Castle, there continued duringe the time of the warr.
  
 +This appears to confirm that Lieutenant Francis is a different man.
  
- 
- 
-====Colonel Richard Fielding==== 
-Richard Fielding (also spelt Feilding) was appointed a Colonel of Foot for the Second Bishops'​ War of 1640, raising his men from Essex, Huntingdon and Bedfordshire. In the First Civil War he served as a brigadier at Edgehill, where he was captured but soon exchanged, then as second in command to Sir Arthur Aston at Reading. After the debacle resulting from his surrender to the Earl of Essex he was court-martialled and sentenced to death, but was reprieved at the last minute following pleas by Prince Charles supported by Prince Rupert. He was stripped of his command, but not his rank, and went on to fight for the Royalists as Master of the Ordnance at Cheriton under Hopton and Forth. ​ 
- 
-====Jacob, 1st Lord Astley of Reading==== 
-Sir Jacob Astley (1579-1652) was a highly-experienced professional soldier who served as Sergeant-Major General of the infantry of the Oxford Army during the First Civil War. Biographies can be found online at [[http://​www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/​biog/​astley.htm|British Civil Wars]], [[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Lord_Astley|Wikipedia]] and [[http://​en.wikisource.org/​wiki/​Astley,​_Jacob_(DNB00)|Wikisource DNB]] .  He served as a soldier from the age of 18 beginning with an expedition to the Azores under Sir Walter Raleigh and the Second Earl of Essex, then on the continent for Prince Maurice of Nassau, Frederick V the ‘Winter King’ of Bohemia (brother in law to King Charles I and father of Prince Rupert), Christian IV of Denmark and Gustavus Adolphus and is said to have tutored Prince Rupert.  ​ 
- 
-He was appointed Sergeant Major General (commander of the infantry) and raised regiments of foot for both Bishops’ Wars. In the First Civil War he again led the King’s Infantry, from Edgehill where he prayed //"O Lord, Thou knowest how busy I must be this day. If I forget Thee, do not forget me." // and promptly followed with the order //"​March on, boys!"//​ to the defeat of the ‘Old Foot’ at Naseby. He was created 1st Baron Reading in November 1644. Clarendon noted that he contributed little to the Royalist Councils, possibly due to deafness, but remarking on his appointment as Sgt Maj General thought him //”a man as fit for that office as Christendom yielded”//​. ​ 
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-After Naseby, Astley was sent to Wales and the Marches, replacing the unpopular Charles Gerard. In September 1645 his son Sir Bernard Astley, a brigadier of the Oxford Army, was mortally wounded at Bristol. By March 1646 Astley had somehow managed to raise an army of 3000 out of remnants of regiments, reformados and garrison troops. In the final battle of the First Civil War he was defeated at Stow-on-the-Wold by Brereton and Morgan. Sitting down on a discarded drum he told his captors //“You have now done your work and may go to play, unless you will fall out among yourselves”//​. After a short imprisonment at Warwick Castle he retired to Kent, taking no part in the Second or Third Civil Wars. 
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-====Sergeant-Major Toby Bowes==== 
  
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