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royalist:foot-regiments:kings-lifeguard [24/09/2015 22:39]
tim
royalist:foot-regiments:kings-lifeguard [18/09/2020 01:49] (current)
tim
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 |**Colonel**|King Charles I| |**Colonel**|King Charles I|
 | |Lord Willoughby D'​Eresby|  | |Lord Willoughby D'​Eresby|
-|**Area Raised**|Derbyshire|+|**Area Raised**|Yorkshire| 
 +| |Lincolnshire| 
 +|Derbyshire
 +| |Cheshire|
 |**Coat Colour**|Red|  |**Coat Colour**|Red|
 |**Flag Colour**|Red|  |**Flag Colour**|Red|
Line 26: Line 29:
  
 ====1642==== ====1642====
 +  *June: The regiment begins to be raised at York, incorporating recruits from Willoughby'​s estates in Lincolnshire
 +  *August: Miners from Derbyshire are provided as recruits by Thomas Bushell
 +  *August: Commissioned at Nottingham(([[https://​collection.nam.ac.uk/​detail.php?​q=searchType%3Dsimple%26resultsDisplay%3Dlist%26simpleText%3Denglish%2Bcivil%2Bwar&​pos=11&​total=53&​page=1&​acc=1993-10-112-1|Warrant at National Army Museum]]))
 +  *August: Move to Shrewsbury and recruit from Cheshire
   *October: Quartered at Yeaton, Walson (?), Oldbury and Morville in Shropshire   *October: Quartered at Yeaton, Walson (?), Oldbury and Morville in Shropshire
-  *October: Battle of Edgehill+  *October: Battle of Edgehill ​//Sir Nicholas Byron'​s Brigade//
   *October: Siege of Banbury   *October: Siege of Banbury
   *November: Standoff at Turnham Green   *November: Standoff at Turnham Green
-  *December: Garrison of Oxford+  *December ​to April: Garrison of Oxford
  
 ====1643==== ====1643====
-  *February: Storm of Cirencester (det+  *February: Storm of Cirencester (detachment as part of a commanded party under Col Lewis Kirke
-  *April: Skirmish at Little Dean (det) +  *April: Skirmish at Little Dean (det under Leighton
-  *April: Battle of Ripple Field (det)+  *April: Battle of Ripple Field (det under Leighton)
   *April: Skirmish at Dorchester-on-Thames   *April: Skirmish at Dorchester-on-Thames
   *April: Battle of Caversham Bridge   *April: Battle of Caversham Bridge
 +  *April to July: Garrison of Oxford
   *August to September: Siege of Gloucester   *August to September: Siege of Gloucester
-  *September: First Battle of Newbury+  ​*September: Detachment remaining in Oxford escorts a convoy to the army 
 +  ​*September: First Battle of Newbury ​//Sir Nicholas Byron'​s Brigade// 
 +  *September: Return to Oxford, remaining in garrison over the winter
  
 ====1644==== ====1644====
 +  *April: Mustered at Aldbourne Chase
 +  *April: 350 men sent to reinforce Hopton
   *June: Battle of Cropredy Bridge   *June: Battle of Cropredy Bridge
-  *August: Battle of Lostwithiel +  *August: Battle of Lostwithiel ​//Colonel Thomas Blagge'​s Brigade// 
-  *August: Skirmish at Caradon Down and Saltash+  *August: Skirmish at Caradon Down and Saltash, where a detachment storms a house at Lee held by [[parliamentarian:​dragoon-regiments:​col.-james-wardlawe|Abercrombie'​s Dragoons]]
   *October: Second Battle of Newbury   *October: Second Battle of Newbury
   *November: Relief of Donnington Castle   *November: Relief of Donnington Castle
 +  *November: Garrison of Oxford over the winter
  
 ====1645==== ====1645====
 +  *May: At Stow on the Wold
   *May: Storm of Leicester   *May: Storm of Leicester
-  *June: Battle of Naseby+  *June: Battle of Naseby, the regiment'​s rank and file captured and marched to London 
 +  *July: Lt Col Leighton and QM Stone at Hereford, recruiting includes 150 Lifeguard soldiers captured at Naseby now released in a prisoner exchange 
 +  *July to September: Besieged in Hereford 
 +  *December: Hereford stormed 
 + 
 +====1646==== 
 +  *March: Battle of Stow on the Wold, QM Stone captured, presumably with any remaining soldiers of the regiment
  
 =====Notes===== =====Notes=====
 +There is a regimental history available online at [[http://​www.kingslifeguard.co.uk/?​page_id=19|The King's Lifeguard of Foote of the Sealed Knot]]
 +
 The Lifeguard of foot absorbed William Legge'​s company of firelocks that had fought as an independent unit at Edgehill. The Lifeguard of foot absorbed William Legge'​s company of firelocks that had fought as an independent unit at Edgehill.
 +
 +Quite a few foot Regiments that fought at Naseby were subsequently re-recruited in Wales & the Marches from July 1645, including William Murray’s, Appleyard’s Tillier’s,​ John Pawlett’s,​ Sir Jacob Astley’s, Duke of York’s, King’s Lifeguard, Sir Henry Bard’s, Sir Bernard Astley’s, Robert Broughton'​s and Lisle’s((from original research by Victor Judge, BCW user 1642)).
 +
 =====Coats, Flags and Equipment===== =====Coats, Flags and Equipment=====
-The regiment are noted as '​red',​ probably referring to flag colour, by Edgehill ((//ECW Flags and Colours 1: English Foot//, Stuart Peachey & Les Prince 1990, Partizan Press ISBN:​0946525846)). They were noted dressed in red coats in 1643 and 1644 ((//ECW Flags and Colours 1: English Foot//, Stuart Peachey & Les Prince 1990, Partizan Press ISBN:​0946525846)). ​+The regiment are noted as '​red',​ probably referring to flag colour, by Edgehill ((//ECW Flags and Colours 1: English Foot//, Stuart Peachey & Les Prince 1990, Partizan Press ISBN:​0946525846)). Thomas Bushell was thanked for //cloathing our liefe Guard and three regiments more, with suites, stockings, shoes, and mounteers when wee were readie to march in the ffield//. They were noted dressed in red coats and Montero caps in 1643 and 1644 ((//ECW Flags and Colours 1: English Foot//, Stuart Peachey & Les Prince 1990, Partizan Press ISBN:​0946525846)). In September 1644 they were issued clothes at Chard, these appear to have been red coats as they are noted in red coats and montero caps in October 1644.
  
-The King's Lifeguard carried a unique pattern of red colours with large St George crosses rather than the usual small cross in a canton. The Colonel'​s colour (Illustration 1) featured a crown over a motto //DIEU ET MON DROIT// over a gold lion passant. The Lieutenant Colonel'​s colour had a crown over a gold dragon rampant (Illustration 2). The Major'​s colour had a crown over a golden portcullis (Illustration 3) and the captains'​ colours were distinguished by varying numbers of crowned Tudor rose devices (Illustration 4). Only three of the captains'​ colours were recorded. There is some variation in the depictions of the flags of the Lifeguard, including possible use of a lion rampant and a gryphon on the field officers'​ flags, these are detailed by Peachey and Prince ((//ECW Flags and Colours 1: English Foot//, Stuart Peachey & Les Prince 1990, Partizan Press ISBN:​0946525846)).+The King's Lifeguard carried a unique pattern of red colours with large St George crosses rather than the usual small cross in a canton. The Colonel'​s colour (Illustration 1) featured a crown over a motto //DIEU ET MON DROIT// over a gold lion passant. The Lieutenant Colonel'​s colour had a crown over a gold dragon rampant (Illustration 2). The Major'​s colour had a crown over a golden portcullis (Illustration 3) and the captains'​ colours were distinguished by varying numbers of crowned Tudor rose devices (Illustration 4). Only three of the captains'​ colours were recorded. There is some variation in the depictions of the flags of the Lifeguard, including possible use of a lion rampant and a gryphon on the field officers'​ flags, these are detailed by Peachey and Prince ((//ECW Flags and Colours 1: English Foot//, Stuart Peachey & Les Prince 1990, Partizan Press ISBN:​0946525846)). All 10 of the Lifeguard colours were captured at Naseby.  
 + 
 +A letter from early February 1643 by Sir Jacob Astley’s states //Sir John Heydon may be pleased to take notice that the regiment of the King’s guards being very weekly Armed; as the last time his Majesty saw this garrison in Armes, where they appeared 190 armed and 210 unarmed wherefore I pray as many Armes shall be brought into the Magazine let some especial care be taken first to furnish the King’s guards before any other regiments with the number of 110 Armes or some sufficient supply//​((Ian Roy edition, Royalist Ordnance Papers, 1642-46, Pt. I, 1964, p.195)).  
 + 
 +From February to April 1643 110 muskets and 212 pikes were issued to the Lifeguard. They were issued 100 muskets from Weymouth by February 1644((Bodleian Library Rawlinson Ms D395)). In April 1644 they were issued with 132 muskets and bandoliers and 68 long pikes
  
-From February to April 1643 110 muskets and 212 pikes were issued to the Lifeguard. 
 =====Notable Officers===== =====Notable Officers=====
  
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 [[http://​bcw-project.org/​biography/​charles-the-first|King Charles I]] [[http://​bcw-project.org/​biography/​charles-the-first|King Charles I]]
 ====Lord Willoughby D'​Eresby==== ====Lord Willoughby D'​Eresby====
-[[https://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Montagu_Bertie,​_2nd_Earl_of_Lindsey|Montagu Bertie]], Lord Willoughby d'​Eresby at the start of the war, succeeded to the Earldom of Lindsey on the death of his father who led the [[royalist:​foot-regiments:​lord-general|Lord General’s Regiment of Foot]] at Edgehill.+[[https://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Montagu_Bertie,​_2nd_Earl_of_Lindsey|Montagu Bertie]], Lord Willoughby d'​Eresby at the start of the war, succeeded to the Earldom of Lindsey on the death of his father who led the [[royalist:​foot-regiments:​lord-general|Lord General’s Regiment of Foot]] at Edgehill ​and died from his wounds thereafter. Willoughby was captured at Edgehill and imprisoned at Warwick Castle, then Windsor, until exchanged in August 1643. By 1644 he was referred to as //​Lieutenant General of our Guards//.  
 +====Lt. Col Sir William Vavasour==== 
 +Captured at Edgehill and imprisoned at Warwick, then Windsor, he escaped from Windsor and rejoined the regiment in April 1643. In June 1643 he left after being appointed to command in Herefordshire and South Wales
 ====Lt. Col. Sir William Leighton==== ====Lt. Col. Sir William Leighton====
 +Initially serving as Major, he was wounded at Edgehill. Promoted to Lt Col in June 1643 replacing Vavasour. He was knighted in 1645. 
 +====Major Robert Markham====
 +Promoted to Major in June 1643, taking over from Leighton. ​
 +
 +
 +Lincolnshire Notes and Queries 1888
 +
 +Capt. Markham, of Grayby, and the Civil 
 +War, temp. Charles I. — ^The following is a copy of an 
 +original document in my possession ; and i should be glad to 
 +know if Capt. Markham took any part in the Civil War. 
 +
 +W.H. Trolloppe 19a Grosvenor Sq. W.
 +
 +"​Charles R. 
 +Our Expresse will and Commannd is That you faile 
 +not to attende Us personally forthwith upon Signi- ​
 +ficaeon made unto you and Receipt of Our pleasure ​
 +on this behalfe during Our aboade in these parts. ​
 +And therefore Wee straightly require you upon yo' ​
 +Allegiance y* you depart not nor absent yo' felfe out 
 +of y* Our Countye of Lincolne, neither suffer yo' ​
 +selfe to be any waies engaged deteyned or kept from 
 +giveing your attendannce accordingly being thereunto ​
 +called or Summoned by Us or Our Command whilst ​
 +Wee shall continue heere upon any pretence Order 
 +Warrant or Command whatsoever from either or both 
 +Houses of Parliament without Our special Leave and 
 +Licence first obteyned or directions to you under Our 
 +owne hande As you render Our highest displeasure ​
 +and will Answere the contrary att yo'^ perill fFor wch 
 +this shall be yo' sufficient Warrant and Authoritye. ​
 +
 +Given at o' Court at York the 23^* day of June 
 +in the Eighteenth yeare of o' Reigne 1642. 
 +
 +To Our trustye and well beloved ​
 +Captaine Robert Markham at 
 +
 +Grayby in our County of Lincolne.** ​
 +
 +====Officer Lists====
 +Lists of the regiment'​s officers are shown in //Officers and Regiments of the Royalist Army// by Stuart Reid (Partizan Press) and at [[http://​www.kingslifeguard.co.uk/?​page_id=54|The King's Lifeguard of Foote of the Sealed Knot]]
 +
 +=====Contemporary References=====
 +From original research by Vicor Judge aka BCW user 1642
 +
 +==King'​s Lifeguard sent to Hereford==
 +
 +C 115.98.7210
 +
 +Sir Barnaby Scudamore
 +
 +His Majesty hath commanded me to returne you Thankes for your carefull Advertisements of the Scotts coming over; And you are desyred to continue all possible Diligence in informing His Majesty truly of all theyr motions. As for what concernes the security of that Place, His Majesty is confident that you will doe in it the part of a gallant man; And for your better Assistance therein, His Majestie hath sent you his Guarde of Foote, which are the only armed men he hath as yett to supply you with, but if you can find a meanes of arming more, he hath men enough to send you, and wee dayly expect store of Muskets from Bristoll which as soone as they come you shall not want for Numbers. In the mean tyme His Majesty doubts not but as a Sheriffe you will summon in the traind Bands with provisions for themselves and what armes they can bring. His Majesty bidds you relye upon all the assistance and encouragement that hee can give you.
 +
 +I rest your affectionate servant
 +George Digbye
 +Ragland Castle
 +the 20th July 1645
 +
  
-====Lt. Col Sir William Vavasour==== 
  
 =====Strength===== =====Strength=====
 +  *June 1642: Said to be 1000 men
 +  *November 1642: Approximately 670, inferred from pay warrants
 +  *February 1643: 400, excluding officers
 +  *February 1643: 512 soldiers, although 322 '​unarmed'​
 +  *April 1644: 350 men at Aldbourne
 +  *May 1645: 200 strong at Stow on the Wold according to Symonds
  
 =====See Also====== =====See Also======