Differences

This shows you the differences between two versions of the page.

Link to this comparison view

parliamentarian:horse-regiments:sir-william-brereton [19/09/2018 00:03]
tim
parliamentarian:horse-regiments:sir-william-brereton [18/09/2020 09:11] (current)
ivor-carr
Line 23: Line 23:
  
 ====1642==== ====1642====
-  *September: Brereton commissioned as a captain ​of horse+  *September: Brereton commissioned as a Captain ​of Horse Harquebusiers ((John Rylands Library JRL TW/262))
   *November: Battle of Brentford (1 troop)   *November: Battle of Brentford (1 troop)
  
 ====1643==== ====1643====
   *January: Skirmish at Nantwich   *January: Skirmish at Nantwich
-  *February: Skirmish at Taporley +  *February: Skirmish at Tarporley 
-  *March: Regiment formed ((N.A. SP28/​300/​558))+  *February: The '​Cheshire Horse' commanded by Brereton consisted of five troops (3-400 men) 
 +  *March: Regiment formed ((N.A. SP28/​300/​558)) ​
   *March: First Battle of Middlewich   *March: First Battle of Middlewich
   *March: Battle of Hopton Heath   *March: Battle of Hopton Heath
Line 41: Line 42:
   *January: Battle of Nantwich   *January: Battle of Nantwich
   *March - April: Brereton'​s troop quartered at Enfield Middlesex.((N.A. SP28/​198/​pt1/​1-5))   *March - April: Brereton'​s troop quartered at Enfield Middlesex.((N.A. SP28/​198/​pt1/​1-5))
-  *April: Brereton ​actually ​commissioned as Colonel of Horse+  *April: Brereton commissioned as Colonel of Horse
   *July: Storm of Montford Bridge   *July: Storm of Montford Bridge
   *August: Skirmish at Tarvin   *August: Skirmish at Tarvin
Line 68: Line 69:
  
 =====Notes===== =====Notes=====
-Unlike the situation in most other areas where a multitude of small regiments of horse appeared until often being rationalized and reduced in 1645-6, there only appears to have ever been the one regiment in Cheshire, with any preexisting ​troops quickly being absorbed by Brereton upon his arrival. Following Brereton'​s delayed standing down under the Self Denying Ordinance the Regiment passed to the Command of it's Lt-Col, Michael Jones. On Brereton'​s return to oversee the surrender of Chester and the final operations in the Midlands he did not resume command of the regiment, which was instead assigned to North Wales, and he struggled to secure the service of even his own old troop, half of which eventually joined him at Lichfield.+ 
 +A history of the unit and lists of its officers are shown in Andrew Abram’s //More Like Lions Than Men: Sir William Brereton and the Cheshire Army of Parliament 1642-46// Helion & Co. Ltd., Warwick, 2020. ISBN 978-1-913118-82-2 
 + 
 + 
 +Unlike the situation in most other areas where a multitude of small regiments of horse appeared until often being rationalized and reduced in 1645-6, there only appears to have ever been the one regiment in Cheshire, with any pre-existing ​troops quickly being absorbed by Brereton upon his arrival. Following Brereton'​s delayed standing down under the Self Denying Ordinance the Regiment passed to the Command of it's Lt-Col, Michael Jones. On Brereton'​s return to oversee the surrender of Chester and the final operations in the Midlands he did not resume command of the regiment, which was instead assigned to North Wales, and he struggled to secure the service of even his own old troop, half of which eventually joined him at Lichfield. 
 + 
 +__A note on Brereton'​s Commissions.__ 
 + 
 +The details of Brereton'​s commissions is given in a number of different documents These are two sets of Brereton'​s accounts,(( N.A. SP28/​152/​pt7/​20;​ SP28/​300/​558)) ​ a restatement of these in a draft certificate from the Committee for taking the Accounts of the Kingdom,​((N.A. SP28/​35/​164-5)) and a further clarifying letter from Brereton.((N.A. SP28/​35/​168,​ copy In Dore N. 'The Letter Books of Sir William Brereton'​ Vol 2 item 809 (RSLC 1990).)) 
 +All these sources confirm that Brereton held the following commissions. 
 +  
 +  *Colonel and Captain of Foot 20/09/42 to 24/06/45 
 +  *Captain of Horse Harquebusiers 20/09/42 to 24/​06/​45((original in John Rylands Library JRL TW/262)) 
 +  *Colonel of Horse Harquebusiers 16/04/44 to 24/06/45 
 + 
 +This is of course not the same as the units that Brereton actually commanded and the accounts go on to explain that the command of the Horse Regiment extended back to 01/03/43 but Brereton claimed no pay for this period as he had no commission for it. Likewise the "good regiment of Dragoons"​ that Brereton led from "his first coming down into Cheshire until the time I returned to the Parliament June 24 1645" was also led for no pay due to lack of a commission. 
 +The Term "Horse Harquebusiers"​ is a little strange but is used consistently in the documents above. Brereton'​s commission as Captain of Horse was issued by the Committee for the Safety of the Kingdom, I have been through a large number of other orders and warrents and a few Commissions issued by the Committee and this is the only time I have found the phrase. They normally use either Horse or Harquebusier seemingly interchangably.  
 + 
 +SEE DISCUSSION AT BOTTOM OF PAGE
  
 =====Flags & Equipment===== =====Flags & Equipment=====
Line 80: Line 99:
 [[http://​www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/​biog/​brereton.htm|Sir William Brereton]] commanded Parliament'​s forces in Cheshire and the North West during the First Civil War.  [[http://​www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/​biog/​brereton.htm|Sir William Brereton]] commanded Parliament'​s forces in Cheshire and the North West during the First Civil War. 
  
-Sir William Brereton'​s commission of captain of a troop of 60 horse 20 Sep 1642 in University of Manchester ​Library,Ref. +Sir William Brereton'​s commission of captain of a troop of 60 horse 20 Sep 1642 in John Rylands ​Library ​JLRTW/262
-GB 133 TW/262+
  
-Sir William Brereton'​s commission as Governor of Ecclesall Castle, Staffordshire 22 Nov 1643 in University of Manchester ​Library,Ref. +Sir William Brereton'​s commission as Governor of Ecclesall Castle, Staffordshire 22 Nov 1643 in John Rylands ​Library ​JLR TW/263
-GB 133 TW/263+
  
 ====Michael Jones==== ====Michael Jones====
Line 104: Line 121:
 ===1643=== ===1643===
 To assist with the formation of the regiment Brereton requested the service of an experienced officer to act as Major To assist with the formation of the regiment Brereton requested the service of an experienced officer to act as Major
-  *Major John Browne ​ (previous service under Col. Goodwin and Lord Brooke. He was sent to join Brereton in June 1643 and by his own account remained for 13 months. Later served under Col Rainsborrow at Bristol and Worcester)((N.A. SP28/​264/​289;​ SP28/220.))+  *Major John Browne ​ (previous service under Col. Goodwin and Lord Brooke. He was sent to join Brereton in June 1643 and by his own account remained for 13 months. Later served under Col Rainsborrow at Bristol and Worcester)((N.A. SP28/​264/​289;​ SP28/220/uf.))
 Troops first active 1643 Troops first active 1643
   *Captain Auttey (only a single reference found to this officer. Various fabric and trimmings probably for trumpeters were issued to him and his Cornet as part of a bill for similar items issued to Brereton'​s troop in Oct. 1643)((N.A. SP28/​8/​16.))   *Captain Auttey (only a single reference found to this officer. Various fabric and trimmings probably for trumpeters were issued to him and his Cornet as part of a bill for similar items issued to Brereton'​s troop in Oct. 1643)((N.A. SP28/​8/​16.))
Line 140: Line 157:
  
 =====Contemporary References===== =====Contemporary References=====
 +
 +===Stafford taken===
 +
 +Vppon Mondaye the  15 May 1643 Colonell Brereton wth his Trowpers of horse & Dragooners did prvatlie gather together about Audley in Staffordshire,​ & Joyninge wth Colonell Ridgeway, (whose Companyes then laye att Newcastle & Leeke) on Tuesday morninge by three a Clocke almost peaceablie entred Stafford Towne, throwe [through] the pollicey & manhood [i.e. manfulness] of Maior Broomehall & a fewe others (The people in the Towne beinge quyett in theire Bedds), and possessed theim selves thereof, wthout losse of any man; They tooke above ffoure hundred Prysoners, & many gent. of worthe, viz: Captyn Sneyde, Captyn Bydolph, Captyn Leighe of Adlington, Captyn Bagott, Captyn Collyer, Captyn Hunt, Captyn Tresswall, & many other Comanders & gents. & Colonell Lane was Slayne, beinge on the Kinges ptie. Beside many Townesmen wch weire alsoe taken prsoners.
  
 ===Capture of Stafford=== ===Capture of Stafford===
Line 145: Line 166:
 E.104.5 A Continuation of Certain speciall and remarkable passages 18-25 May 1643((From Victor Judge aka BCW user '​1642'​)) E.104.5 A Continuation of Certain speciall and remarkable passages 18-25 May 1643((From Victor Judge aka BCW user '​1642'​))
  
-The true relation of the manner of taking of Stafford,by Sir William Brereton by letters from thence is thus informed,​The Malignant High Sheriffe and the rest of the Kings forces there, being desirous to bring that whole County in subjegation to them, by a speedy putting in execution the Commission of Array, warned all in general to make their appearance on such an Heath not farre distant,​(having before disarmed most of them, deprived them of all things that had but the shew of a weapon) which design being made known to a worthy Gentleman (who was the Commander in Cheife of a Town not far distant) who presently sent to Sir William Brereton for some assistance, to prevent the enemies approaches, which when Sir William understood,​(formerly knowing the fidelity and good service sends him some Curseries, and Dragooners; which he joined to his own strength, and so approach the place appointed for the meeting of the contrary party, and upon that Heath made the best shew and outside of an Army, that so small a strength could do; so that when the other were coming to make their appearance, they discovered an Army on the Heath before them and presently ranne back not daring to go on any further,​insomuch that this valiant little Army were much encouraged in their enterprise; and one trusty and very faithful Commander (among the rest) desired that they might attempt to take the Towne, which Sir William Brereton consented to, so they marched the next night with their Carriages, and what they had, toward Stafford, coming thither betweene two or three aclock in the morning, then this worthy Commander, with fiftie or three score men undertook to scale the walls at one end of the City, and so to open a gate at the other end, where was Sir William and the rest of the body, and according to his purpose performed it suddenly, none in the Towne being up, excepting the Centinells, and some few which they quickly dispatcht, so that they were all in the midst of the Towne before they met with any opposicion, then on a suddaine Drums struck up, many swords drawne and some Muskets discharged, yet they lost but one man, but tooke two hundred horse,three hundred prisoners, two pieces of Ordnance, and many Gentlemen of quality.+The true relation of the manner of taking of Stafford,by Sir William Brereton by letters from thence is thus informed,​The Malignant High Sheriffe and the rest of the Kings forces there, being desirous to bring that whole County in subjegation to them, by a speedy putting in execution the Commission of Array, warned all in general to make their appearance on such an Heath not farre distant,​(having before disarmed most of them, deprived them of all things that had but the shew of a weapon) which design being made known to a worthy Gentleman (who was the Commander in Cheife of a Town not far distant) who presently sent to Sir William Brereton for some assistance, to prevent the enemies approaches, which when Sir William understood,​(formerly knowing the fidelity and good service sends him some Curseries, and Dragooners; which he joined to his own strength, and so approach the place appointed for the meeting of the contrary party, and upon that Heath made the best shew and outside of an Army, that so small a strength could do; so that when the other were coming to make their appearance, they discovered an Army on the Heath before them and presently ranne back not daring to go on any further,​insomuch that this valiant little Army were much encouraged in their enterprise; and one trusty and very faithful Commander (among the rest) desired that they might attempt to take the Towne, which Sir William Brereton consented to, so they marched the next night with their Carriages, and what they had, toward Stafford, coming thither betweene two or three aclock in the morning, then this worthy Commander, with fiftie or three score men undertook to scale the walls at one end of the City, and so to open a gate at the other end, where was Sir William and the rest of the body, and according to his purpose performed it suddenly, none in the Towne being up, excepting the Centinells, and some few which they quickly dispatcht, so that they were all in the midst of the Towne before they met with any opposicion, then on a suddaine Drums struck up, many swords drawne and some Muskets discharged, yet they lost but one man, but tooke two hundred horse, three hundred prisoners, two pieces of Ordnance, and many Gentlemen of quality. 
 =====Strength===== =====Strength=====
 April 1645: 13 troops with 790 men((British Library Additional Manuscript 11331,45)) April 1645: 13 troops with 790 men((British Library Additional Manuscript 11331,45))
Line 166: Line 188:
 =====See Also====== =====See Also======
 ===== Links ===== ===== Links =====
 +~~DISCUSSION~~