Lieutenant General John Middleton’s Regiment of Horse

Active1645 to 1648
ConflictsFirst Civil War
Second Civil War
Third Civil War
ColonelJohn Middleton
Area RaisedBorders
Aberdeen & Banff
Flag Colour
Flag Design
Field ArmiesLeven 1645
Leslie 1645
Middleton 1647
Hamilton 1648
Charles 1651

Scottish horse regiment of Middleton, serving in England during the First Civil War then favouring the Engagers in 1648 and raised again in 1651

Service History


  • March: Middleton resigns from Parliamentary service and raises a regiment of horse probably in the Borders
  • July to September: Siege of Hereford
  • August: Skirmish at Bewdley
  • September: Battle of Philiphaugh
  • October: Return to England
  • November to May 1646: Siege of Newark


  • March: Siege of Kincardine Castle (1 troop)


  • February: Majority of regiment disbands, Middleton's Lifeguard Troop and Lt Colonel Gilbert Kerr’s Troop form part of the Scots New Model Army
  • March to May: Campaigning in northeast Scotland
  • July: Middleton leads reinforcements to Leslie in the northwest
  • August: Return to quarters in the Lowlands


  • March: Middleton joins the Engagers
  • May: Middleton commissioned Colonel of Horse for Selkirkshire and Teviotdale
  • June: Middleton made Lt General of the Horse
  • June: Battle of Mauchline Muir
  • July: Middleton leads Hamilton's advance into England on the Preston campaign
  • August: Battle of Preston
  • August: Skirmish at Wigan
  • August: Battle of Winwick Pass?
  • August: Middleton captured at Stone, regiment dispersed


  • Middleton joins Ogilvy and Huntly's rising


  • October: Middleton starts his own Royalist rising against the Kirk Party Covenanters
  • October: Skirmish at Newtyle
  • November: Middleton signs treaty at Strathbogie


  • April: Middleton ordered to send his troops to Stirling
  • April: The Estates recommend a regiment of horse be found for Middleton
  • May: Middleton takes command of 4th Cavalry Brigade
  • May: Middleton's horse to be raised from Aberdeenshire and Banffshire heritors and gentlemen
  • June: Additional horse to be raised but are unlikely to have reached the army
  • July: Worcester campaign
  • September: Battle of Worcester
  • September: Middleton captured at Blackstone Edge


A history of the unit is shown in Edward M. Furgol’s A Regimental History of the Covenanting Armies 1639-1651 Edinburgh, 1990. ISBN 0 85976 194 0

The regiment initially included a number of English troopers, unemployed after the creation of the New Model Army.

In the winter of 1645-6 Middleton held a command in Northern Scotland, although his own cavalry regiment had re-joined Leven's army around Newark. Seven troops of his regiment served at the siege of Newark, but the eighth, Captain Bruce's of 71 horse, likely accompanied Middleton as a lifeguard. The siege of Kincardine Castle is dated as 1646 but given as 1647 in some sources.

Mauchline Muir was a skirmish between the party of Scots Engagers, who favoured invading England, and Covenanters opposed to this plan.

Flags and Equipment

In 1651 the new recruits were supposed to bring a horse, sword, pistols, back-and-breast and a helmet.

Notable Officers

A list of the regiment's officers is shown in Stuart Reid's Scots Armies of the 17th Century 1. The Army of the Covenant 1639-1651 Partizan Press 1998 ISBN 094652550

John Middleton


  • 8 troops
  • January 1646: 348 troopers in 7 troops at Newark
  • 1647: 80 men in 1 troop, reduced to 75
  • May 1648: Middleton to raise 80 more horse

See Also