Sir Mungo Campbell of Lawer’s Regiment of Foot

Active1639 to 1651
CountryScotland
AllegianceCovenanter
ConflictsFirst Bishops’ War
Second Bishops War
Confederate War
First Civil War
Second Civil War
Third Civil War
TypeFoot
ColonelMarquis of Argyll
Sir Mungo Campbell of Lawers
Sir James Campbell of Lawers
Area RaisedStrathtay
Linlithgowshire
Coat ColourGrey
Flag ColourBlue?
Flag DesignWhite saltire?
Field ArmiesMonro 1642-4
Callendar 1644
Argyll 1644
Urry 1645
Leslie 1650
Charles 1651

Later Sir James Campbell of Lawers’ Regiment of Foot

Veteran Covenanter Regiment of Foot serving throughout the Civil Wars to the Battle of Worcester

Service History

1639

  • Raised as the Marquis of Argyll’s Regiment for service in Scotland
  • April: Campbell of Lawers leads 500 men to Aberdeenshire
  • April: Quartered at Drum and Pitfoddels
  • April: Occupy Aberdeen (11th to 13th)
  • June: Ordered to Stirling, then to the Border

1640

  • In Scotland?

1641

  • In Scotland?

1642

  • February: Lawers commissioned to levy 500 men for service in Ulster
  • March: Ordered to assemble at Dumbarton, Lawers commissioned Colonel
  • April: Arrive in Ulster
  • May: 5 companies serve with Monro on the Bann campaign
  • September: Based at Templepatrick

1643

  • Serving with Monro in Ulster

1644

  • February: Sail for Scotland, arriving in early March
  • Quarter in Greenock, Paisley, Clydesdale, then Perth
  • April: Join Callendar's force to retake Dumfries
  • April: Quarter at Dunottar Castle
  • May: Quarter at Drum, march to Turiff, Banff and Auchindoun
  • May: Taking of Aberdeen?
  • June: Taking of Morpeth
  • July to August: Siege of Newcastle
  • September: March back to Scotland to garrison Aberdeen
  • Garrison of Inverness

1645

  • January: Join the Earl of Seaforth's force which breaks up on hearing of the defeat at Inverlochy
  • February: Raid Elchess, Cokston and Elgin
  • Join Urry's force
  • May: Battle of Auldearn ~400 men Sir Mungo Campbell killed
  • Return to garrison and slowly rebuild strength

1646

  • January: Sir James Campbell takes over
  • October to February 1647: Garrison Aberdeen (det)

1647

  • February to April: Muster at Aberdeen for service in Ireland
  • Perhaps briefly sent back to Ireland?

1648

  • March: Back in Scotland
  • Garrison of Inverness
  • June: Ordered to Edinburgh
  • Enter England but do not appear to have been at Preston, then return to Lothian
  • Join the Kirk Party forces after the Whiggamore Raid

1649

  • February: Lawers commissioned Colonel, probably combining his old regiment with 250 recruits from Linlithgowshire
  • March: 'Old' regiment, 173 strong, quartering in northeast Scotland
  • June: Quartered at St Andrew's, Crail, Silverdykes, the Anstruthers, Pittenweem and Leven

1650

  • 27th April: Skirmish at Carbisdale (det) - 36 musketeers under Quartermaster Shaw
  • June: Regiment in Fife
  • July: Skirmish against the English at Holyrood Park
  • 3rd September: Battle of Dunbar - ~600 men?
  • Retreat to Hamilton
  • November: Ordered to join garrison of Stirling

1651

  • April: On guard duty at the Head of the Forth
  • June: Back at Stirling Camp
  • September: Battle of Worcester (?)

Notes

A history of the unit is shown in Edward M. Furgol’s A Regimental History of the Covenanting Armies 1639-1651 Edinburgh, 1990. ISBN 0 85976 194 0

Originally raised in 1639 as Argyle's regiment for service in Scotland, the regiment was the longest-lasting Covenanter unit, surviving to fight at Worcester in 1651. After service with Monro in Ulster the regiment returned to Scotland where they served with Callendar on the Borders then Argyll in Aberdeenshire before rejoining Callendar in England at the Siege of Newcastle. Returning to Scotland, the regiment garrisoned Aberdeen and Inverness until in May 1645 they were assigned to Urry's army. In the front line at Auldearn, the regiment suffered severe casualties in battle, losing their Colonel, Lieutenant Colonel, 4 Captains, 5 Lieutenants and 200 soldiers killed.

In 1647 they were due to be sent to Ireland but refused to depart Inverness until arrears of pay had been settled. Therefore, by default, they can be viewed as one of the Scots New Model Army regiments. By Dunbar they were described as the stoutest regiment in the army. The regiment joined Charles's army in camp at Stirling in 1651 and likely ended their service at the Battle of Worcester, though Furgol notes this is not confirmed.

Coats, Flags & Equipment

The regiment was likely dressed in ubiquitous Scots hodden grey with blue bonnets. In 1639, remarkably, they were noted to be wearing red trousers. In February 1646 400 suits of clothing and 400 pairs of shoes were requested for the regiment.

Possibly a blue flag with white saltire and the inscription COVENANT for Religion Croune and Countrie captured at Dunbar might be from the regiment.1).

In 1639 Campbell of Lawers called for bows and arrows and hackbutts, though probably the regiment was conventionally equipped with pike and musket through most of its career. Furgol mentions the possibility of them having firelocks by Dunbar.

Notable Officers

A list of the regiment's officers is shown in Stuart Reid's Scots Armies of the 17th Century 1. The Army of the Covenant 1639-1651 Partizan Press 1998 ISBN 094652550

Archibald Campbell, 1st Marquis of Argyll

Argyll (also spelt Argyle) (circa 1607-1661) was Chief of Clan Campbell and most prominent leader of the Scots Covenanters. In effect he ruled Scotland during the Civil Wars. Biographies can be found online at the BCW website, Wikipedia and the Peerage.com. In 1639 he seized Hamilton's castle at Broddick. He led Covenanter forces in a raid on the Highlands during the Second Bishops' War of 1640, capturing Airlie and Dumbarton Castles. In 1644 he accompanied the Covenanter invasion of England but soon returned to Scotland, in May he took Aberdeen from Huntly's Royalists, then captured Kellie Castle. He led the Covenanters at the Battle of Fyvie and besieged Huntly Castle in winter 1644. In 1645 he was present at Inverlochy, but not a participant in the battle due to a dislocated shoulder and fled the scene in his galley on Lake Linhe. He was also present at Kilsyth. In 1648 he opposed the Engagers and later supported the Whiggamore rising, but in 1651 helped strike the deal that saw Charles II lead another Scottish army into England. In 1653 he opposed Glencairn's rising. Convicted of treason after the Restoration, he was beheaded in May 1661, his head being affixed to the same spike that had held Montrose's eleven years before.

Sir Mungo Campbell of Lawers

Sir Mungo Campbell was killed in Battle at Auldearn

Sir James Campbell of Lawers

Son of Sir Mungo, he took over the regiment in 1646

Officer Lists

  • Col. Sir Mungo Campbell of Lawers (Killed at Auldearn)
  • Lt. Col. William Campbell (Killed at Auldearn)
  • Capt. Campbell (Killed at Auldearn)
  • Capt. William Bruce (Killed at Auldearn)
  • Capt. Cashore (Killed at Auldearn)
  • Capt. Shaw (Killed at Auldearn)

Strength

  • April 1642: 932 foot
  • September 1642: 1132 officers and men, 78 sick
  • March 1644: 300 men return from Ulster
  • April 1644: Number 800 together with the Earl of Lothian’s Regiment
  • May 1645: Estimated 400 at Auldearn, but lose around 200 men
  • February 1646: 400 or more as per clothing request
  • July 1649: 644 foot
  • August 1649: Reorganised into 6 companies, and 187 more Linlithgowshire men authorised to be levied
  • September 1650: Estimated 600 at Dunbar
  • June 1651: 413 men
  • July 1651: 391 men
  • July 1651: 400 men

See Also

Campbell of Lawers' Regiment are re-enacted by Campbell of Lawers regiment of the English Civil War Society of America

1) Stuart Reid's Scots Armies of the 17th Century 2: Scots Colours Partizan Press 1988